Secrecy and Security in Distributed Storage

Secure Distributive Storage of Decentralized Source Data: Can Interaction Help?

Salim El Rouayheb, Vinod Prabhakaran and Kannan Ramchandran

Salim presented this work on creating a distributed storage system that also has secrecy. As far as I understood, the model is that there are k distributed sources and they want to create a good erasure code in a network: a data collector who accesses any k out of n storage nodes should be able to recover the data. In addition, one storage node is an eavesdropper who gets access to everything communicated to her. The question is to create a distributed code that also has secrecy (i.e. the eavesdropper learns nothing other than what is contained in the nodes she controls) but minimize the communication in the network.

In the model each storage node has a private key and these keys can be used to provide the desired secrecy. The nodes could use interactive protocols of exchanging keys etc, but the main result of the paper is that this does not reduce the required communication compared to a one-way dissemination scheme.

Security in Distributed Storage Systems by Communicating a Logarithmic Number of Bits

by Theodoros K. Dikaliotis, myself and Tracey Ho,

Ted presented our work on security (error correction) for distributed storage systems. We are looking into the problem of finding if a storage node in an (n,k) system is storing incorrect equations. These could be originating from bit-flipping errors in the storage medium or (more likely) if a malicious node was injecting errors during a previous repair in the storage system.

The model is that we assume a trusted verifier that communicates to the nodes and uses the built in redundancy of the code to find where the errors are located. The first observation is in most distributed storage systems the same code is used multiple times to reduce the overhead from storing the coefficients of the code. Instead of sending all the packets, all the storage nodes can project onto the same vector r and only send the projections. The error detection works since the projected data follows the same (n,k) code which can tolerate up to half the minimum distance adversarial errors (under optimal decoding). The problem is that the vector r is very long, around the same order as the stored data. One way around this is to create a pseudorandom r' using a small seed s, and project on that. All the storage nodes need to share the small seed s and if we use pseudorandom generators that fool linear functions we can bound the probability of failure of a computationally unbounded adversary who places the errors. This relies  on the pseudorandom generators of Naor & Naor (but for large finite fields).

This trick applies more generally: Assume you can prove some bad event that involves a linear function of  an n length i.i.d. random vector r happens with very small probability p_{bad}.

Then instead of using the random vector, you can use a pseudo-random vector r' that is generated from only \log n random bits and still have a bound on the bad event being less than p_{bad}+ \epsilon where \epsilon is the total variation bound obtained from the pseudo-random generator.

On Secure Distributed Data Storage Under Repair Dynamics

by Sameer Pawar, Salim El Rouayheb, Kannan Ramchandran

Sameer presented his work the repair problem under secrecy constraints. The problem is to construct a distributed storage system that stays secure when repairs are taking place. The model is that an eavesdropper can observe the data arriving at \ell nodes in an (n,k) distributed storage system. The static version of this problem (no repairs) is equivalent to the erasure-erasure wiretap-II channel studied in this paper by Arunkumar and Mclaughlin while this paper generalizes this problem under the natural repair dynamics. As far as I understood, there were two results. One was a general bound on the secrecy capacity for any distributed storage system. There is also a surprising separation result:

For distributed storage operating at the minimum bandwidth point (MBR) secrecy and repair can be separated without loss of optimality. The authors show that the combination of using an MDS code to achieve secrecy (by ‘mixing’ the data with random noise keys) and exact Minimum bandwidth regenerating codes that were recently invented in this paper by Rashmi et al. for repair, achieves the secrecy capacity.

Interestingly, the same separation is no longer optimal for other points of the storage-repair tradeoff and as far as I understood the secrecy capacity remains open.

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Codes for Distributed Storage: The repair problem

The first two talks in this session

Explicit and Optimal Exact-Regenerating Codes for the Minimum-Bandwidth Point in Distributed Storage by K. V. Rashmi , Nihar B. Shah , P. Vijay Kumar , Kannan Ramchandran

and

A Flexible Class of Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage by Nihar B. Shah, K. V. Rashmi, P. Vijay Kumar

where given by Vijay Kumar.  To summarize the results in these two papers (and also

Exact-Repair MDS Codes for Distributed Storage Using Interference Alignment

by Changho Suh and Kannan Ramchandran

that appeared in another session), it is useful to briefly explain the current landscape of the repair problem:

(for more information see the Distributed storage wiki and this survey paper which however do not contain these new results yet.)

Assume a file to be stored, of size B (sometimes also found as \mathcal{M} in the literature) one can use an (n,k) MDS code for storage with maximum reliability: just cut the file into k packets of size B/k, encode into n pieces (of the same size \alpha=B/k ) and store each packet into a storage node. The reliability achieved is that any k storage nodes contain enough information to recover the file, which is the best possible. So we can tolerate any n-k failures without losing data. But most of the time we only have one failure. We then want to repair this failure by creating a new encoded packet by communicating as little information as possible from d  surviving storage nodes. There are two cases:

1. If we ask that the new packet still forms a good code (i.e. any k out of the new n nodes suffice to recover), the problem is called functional repair and is completely solved and equivalent to multicasting.  The minimum repair bandwidth can be determined by a cut-set bound and we will refer to the achievable region as the cut-set region.

2. If we ask that the new packet formed is exactly identical to the lost one: This problem is called exact repair and is very difficult. It is equivalent to a multicasting network coding problem with intermediate nodes having requests for subsets and therefore prior tools from network coding do not suffice. The repair problem seems close to locally decodable codes but this connection has not been investigated yet.

The amount of information communicated from d surviving nodes is called the repair bandwidth \gamma=d\beta. Another issue is that one can reduce this repair bandwidth if the storage per node \alpha is allowed to increase and there is a tradeoff involved.

The two most important points of this tradeoff are called Minimum Storage point (MSR)  (where \alpha=B/k corresponds to MDS codes) and Minimum Bandwidth point (MBR) (where \alpha is larger but the repair bandwidth is minimized).

Clearly exact repair is a strictly harder than functional repair and the cut-set region is still a valid outer bound. A substantial amount of recent work has been focused on understanding the communication required for exact repair. All the results here establish that the cut-set region is achievable for exact repair for the parameters discussed.

Vijay presented a storyline that concluded to the settings which were known before.

This paper had completely solved the problem for the Minimum Bandwidth (MBR) point, for any (n,k), but fixing d=n-1.

The first paper (Explicit and Optimal Exact-Regenerating Codes for the Minimum-Bandwidth Point in Distributed Storage) in this session established that the MBR cut-set bound point can be achieved with exact repair for any d, corresponding to an arbitrary number d\leq n-k of failed nodes. The second result in this paper is that all the other interior points of the tradeoff curve (except the points of minimum repair and minimum storage) cannot be achieved with linear codes for exact repair. ( Of course this does not preclude the possibility that they can be approached infinitely close by making the code packets smaller and smaller).

In the second paper A Flexible Class of Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage, the authors generalize the requirements of the distributed storage system: the initial requirement was that any data collector who connects to any k storage nodes (and receives all their stored data ) obtains enough information to recover the file. Here the authors want to enable data collectors who have limited communication with each storage node to reconstruct the file. The only requirement is that the total amount of information communicated is sufficient. This is, of course, a harder requirement on the storage code and the authors characterize the repair bandwidth for functional repair under this new requirement of flexible recovery. The technical part involves graph theoretically bounding the flow for these flexible information flow graphs. The question of exact repair of these flexible regenerating codes naturally arises and it seems to me that previous exact regenerating code constructions do not immediately generalize.

Finally, in another session was the closely related paper

Exact-Repair MDS Codes for Distributed Storage Using Interference Alignment

by Changho Suh and Kannan Ramchandran

Changho presented two new results: both are for the minimum storage point (MSR) and hence correspond to results for MDS codes.

One is that for the low-rate regime k/n \leq 1/2 if the number of nodes helping for the repair is sufficiently large d \geq 2k-1,  the MSR cut-set point can be achived for exact repair. For this regime the paper presents explicit code constructions that use a small finite fields and build on this paper which established similar results but only when repairing systematic nodes (and not nodes storing parities).

The second result of this paper closes the open problem of MSR exact repair for the high-rate k/n\geq 1/2 regime. The paper uses the symbol extension technique introduced in the Cadambe-Jafar paper Interference Alignment and the Degrees of Freedom for the K User Interference Channel to MDS codes that asymptotically approach the cut-set bound.

This paper appeared simultaneously with

Distributed Data Storage with Minimum Storage Regenerating Codes – Exact and Functional Repair are Asymptotically Equally Efficient, by Viveck R. Cadambe, Syed A. Jafar, Hamed Maleki,

Which independently obtain very similar results using the same technique. Note that the symbol extension approach requires vector linear network coding (sub-packetization of each stored packet) and to approach the cut-set bound an enormous amount of subpacketization (and field size) seem to be required. I think it is correct to interpret these results as existence proofs of high-rate regenerating codes approaching the cut-set bound for exact repair, rather than explicit constructions.

I think that the applicability of interference alignment to problems that seem to have nothing to do with wireless channels is quite remarkable. Another related case is the paper

Network Coding for Multiple Unicasts: An Interference Alignment Approach

by A. Das, S. Vishwanath, S. Jafar, A. Markopoulou.

I will blog my notes on this paper (hopefully) soon. Are the slides available anywhere? I took pictures of slides from other talks but my camera run out of battery.