# Expected number of faces in Gaussian polytopes

Last week I was reading Active Learning via Perfect Selective Classification by El-Yaniv and Wiener, and came across a neat result due to Hug and Reitzner that they use in some of their bounds for active learning on Gaussian distributions.

The setup is the following : let $X_1, X_2, \ldots, X_n$ be $n$ jointly Gaussian vectors with distribution $\mathcal{N}(0,I_d)$ in $\mathbb{R}^d$. The convex hull $P_n$ of these points is called a Gaussian polytope. This is a random polytope of course, and we can ask various things about their shape : what is the distribution of the number of vertices, or the number of $k$-faces? Let $f_k(P_n)$ be the number of $k$-faces Distributions are hard, but for general $k$ the expected number of faces (as $n \to infty$) is given by $\mathbb{E}[ f_k(P_n)] = \frac{2^d}{\sqrt{d}} \binom{d}{k+1} \beta_{k,d-1}(\pi \ln n)^{(d-1)/2} (1 + o(1))$,

where $\beta_{k,d-1}$ is the internal angle of a regular $(d-1)$-simplex at one of its $k$-dimensional faces. What Hug and Reitzner show is a bound on the variance (which then El-Yaniv and Plan use in a Chebyshev bound) : there exists a constant $c_d$ such that $\mathrm{Var}( F_k(P_n) ) \le c_d (\ln n)^{(d-1)/2}$

So the variance of the number of $k$-faces can be upper bounded by something that does not depend at all on the actual value of $k$. In fact, they show that $f_k(P_n) (\ln n)^{-(d-1)/2} \to \frac{2^d}{\sqrt{d}} \binom{d}{k+1} \beta_{k,d-1} \pi^{(d-1)/2}$

in probability as $n \to \infty$. That is, appropriately normalized, the number of faces converges to a constant.

To me this result was initially surprising, but after some more thought it makes a bit more sense. If you give me a cloud of Gaussian points, then I need $k+1$ points to define a $k$-face. The formula for the mean says that if I chose a random set of $k+1$ points, then approximately $\frac{2^d}{\sqrt{d}} \beta_{k,d-1}(\pi \ln n)^{(d-1)/2}$ fraction of them will form a real $k$-face of the polytope. This also explains why the simplex-related quantity appears — points that are on “opposite sides” of the sphere (the level sets of the density) are not going to form a face together. As $n \to \infty$ this fraction will change, but effectively the rate of growth in the number of faces with $n$ is $(\ln n)^{(d-1)/2}$, regardless of $k$.

I’m not sure where this result will be useful for me (yet!) but it seemed like something that the technically-minded readers of the blog would find interesting as well.