In doing some literature searches, I came across paper from 1973 with the following in the abstract:

A generalization of information theory is presented with the aim of distinguishing the direction of information flow for mutually coupled statistical systems… An extension to a group of such systems has also been proposed. The theory is able to describe the informational relationships between living beings and other multivariate complex systems as encountered in economy. An application example referring to group behavior with monkeys is given.

Monkeys are so cool…

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